Semester 1 Final Objectives

Chapter 1 Objectives: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

1. Describe the basic functions of organisms.

2. Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various specialties of each discipline.

3. Identify the major levels of organization in organisms, from the simplest to the most complex.

4. Identify the organ systems of the human body and the major components of each system.

5. Explain the concept of homeostasis and its significance for organisms.

6. Describe how positive feedback and negative feedback are involved in homeostatic regulation.

7. Use anatomical terms to describe body sections, body regions, and relative positions.

8. Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions.


Chapter.2 Objectives: The Chemical level of Organization

1. Describe the crucial role of enzymes in metabolism.

2. Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.

3. Explain how the chemical properties of water make life possible.

4. Discuss the importance of pH and the role of buffers in body fluids.

5. Describe the physiological roles of inorganic compounds.

6. Discuss the structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and high-energy compounds.


Chapter 3 Objectives: The Cellular Level of Organization

1. List the functions of the cell membrane and the structural features that enable it to perform those functions.

2. Specify the routes by which different ions and molecules can enter or leave a cell and the factors that may restrict such movement.

3. Describe the various transport mechanisms that cells use to facilitate the absorption or removal of specific substances.

4. Describe the organelles of a typical cell, and indicate the specific functions of each. 

5. Explain the functions of the cell nucleus.


Chapter 4 Objectives: The Tissue Level of Organization

1. Identify the four major tissue types of the body and their roles.

2. Discuss the types and functions of epithelial cells.

3. Compare the structures and functions of the various types of connective tissues.

4. Describe how connective tissue establishes the framework of the body.

5. Describe the three types of muscle tissue and the special structural features of each type.

6. Discuss the basic structure and role of neural tissue.


Chapter 5 Objectives: The Integumentary System

1. Describe the main structural features of the epidermis, and explain their functional significance.

2. Explain what accounts for individual and racial differences in skin, such as skin color.

3. Discuss the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin and the role played by melanocytes.

4. Describe the structure and functions of the dermis.

5. Describe the structure and functions of the subcutaneous layer.

6. Explain how the sweat glands of the integumentary system play a major role in regulating body temperature.


Chapter 6 Objectives: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure

1. Describe the functions of the skeletal system.

2. Identify the cell types in bone, and list their major functions.

3. Compare the structures and functions of compact bone and spongy bone.

4. Compare the mechanisms of intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification.

5. Discuss the timing of bone development and growth, and account for the differences in the internal structure of the bones of adults.


Chapter 7 Objectives: The Axial Skeleton

1. Identify the bones of the axial skeleton, and specify their functions.

2. Describe key structural differences among the skulls of infants, children, and adults.

3. Identify the vertebral regions, and describe the distinctive structural and functional characteristics of each vertebral group.


Chapter 8 Objectives: The Appendicular Skeleton

1.     Identify each bone of the appendicular skeleton.

2. Explain how study of the skeleton can reveal significant information

about an individual.

3. Summarize the skeletal differences between males and females.


Chapter 9: Articulations

1. Contrast the major categories of joints, and explain the relationship between structure and function for each category.

2. Describe the basic structure of a synovial joint, identifying possible accessory structures and their functions.

3. Describe the dynamic movements of the skeleton.


Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue

1. Describe the characteristics and functions of skeletal muscle tissue.

2. Describe the organization of muscle at the tissue level.

3. Explain the unique characteristics of skeletal muscle fibers.

4. Identify the structural components of a sarcomere.

5. Identify the components of the neuromuscular junction and summarize the events involved in the neural control of skeletal muscles.

6. Explain the key steps involved in the contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber.

7. Compare the types of muscle contractions.

8. Describe the mechanisms by which muscle fibers obtain the energy to power contractions.

9. Relate the types of muscle fibers to muscle performance.

10. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic endurance, and explain their implications for muscular performance.


Chapter 11 Objectives

1. Describe the arrangement of fascicles in the various types of muscles, and explain the resulting functional differences.

2. Predict the actions of a muscle on the basis of the relative positions of its origin and insertion.

3. Explain how muscles interact to produce or oppose movements.

4. Explain how the name of a muscle can help identify its location, appearance, and/or function.

5. Identify the principal axial muscles of the body together with their origins, insertions, and actions. 

6. Identify the principal appendicular muscles of the body together with their origins, insertions, and actions.

7. Compare the major muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs, and relate their differences to their functional roles.